Voter study 1994

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Research Design

This study has been made possible by grants from the German National Science (DFG), the Dutch National Science Foundation (NWO), the University of Amsterdam, the University of Mannheim, and with the cooperation of the Commission of the European Communities.

The 1994 voters study consisted of a single wave of interviews, conducted immediately following the European elections of June 1994, with freshly drawn samples in all member states of the European Union. As in 1989, the questions were added to a special post-election Eurobarometer (EB 41.1). Variables of three other surrounding Eurobarometer surveys are also documented and included. The first two of these (EB 40 and EB 41) were realized before the European elections, in October-November 1993 and April-May 1994. The third was (EB 42), conducted in November-December 1994. The number of interviews in the different countries was in each of the three waves approximately 1000. For Luxembourg, this number was lower, approximately 500. Sample size in the United Kingdom was approximately 1300, of which approximately 300 interviews were conducted in Northern Ireland. The total number of interviews conducted for the four waves amounts to almost 52000.

The questionnaires were identical in all member states (apart from unavoidable variations due to language and institutional differences). A large number of questions were identical to those used in the 1989, 1999 and 2004 study, thus permitting over-time comparisons of voter behavior in the 1989, 1994, 1999 and 2004 elections.

While the main wave is the post-electoral survey, the other three interviews are partially overlapping in contents. Some of the questions have been included in two, a few in three or all four of the interviews, thus offering opportunities for longitudinal comparison of voting behaviour and voter orientations. The four waves of interviews constitute a repeated cross-section study, that is, they have been conducted on independently drawn random samples of the population of the member states of the European Community.

The selection of topics and questions includes: electoral behavior including questions on party choices, past voting behavior, voting behavior at the national level, party preferences, and propensity to support particular parties; general political attitudes and behavior based on a question of interest in politics, campaign, most important problems, attitudes regarding EU, left-right self-placement, placement of parties; background characteristics including gender, age, education, religion, media consumption.

For a European Election Study (EES) Trend File covering the voter studies from 1989 to 2004 see also the website of Michael Marsh and Slava Mikhaylov at Trinity College Dublin.

How to cite this data: Schmitt, H., Eijk, C. van der, Scholz, E., Klein, M. (1997): European Election Study 1994 (EES 1994). European Commission [Principal investigator]. GESIS Data Archive, Cologne. ZA2865 Data file Version 1.0.0, doi:10.4232/1.2865



First Pre-Election Eurobarometer


Second Pre-Election Eurobarometer


Post-Election Main Study


Post-Election Eurobarometer

GESIS Data Archive

The data and extensive documentation are available at the GESIS Data Archive for the Social Sciences