Elite Study

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Research Design

Some sort of an elite survey was present in three out of the seven waves of the EES. More exactly in 1979 two studies of political elites were conducted (among EP candidates and middle-level party elites); in 1994 three separate components were included: a study of candidates for the European Parliament elections, a study of members of the European Parliament, and studies of Members of national Parliaments; and in 2009 a Candidate Study was carried out.

The studies generally focus on the relation between citizens and representatives addressing topics such as democracy and representation, campaigning and mobilization, issues, and ideology.

Elite Study 2009

Elite Study 1994

Elite Study 1979