EES 1994 Study

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Research Design

The research design for this study was more elaborate than that for any of the previous European Election Studies. In addition to a study of voters, the research design incorporated a study of candidates for the European Parliament elections, a study of members of the European Parliament, and studies of members of national parliaments. These four components of EES94 were linked with common questions about policy preferences and other matters. Thus, the 1994 election study is not just a study of voting but also a study of representation.

In addition, the Euromanifesto project collected and coded party manifestos from the relevant parties running in the 1994 European Parliament Elections.

The results of the study are summarized in two books.  Schmitt and Thomassen, eds. (1999), “Political Representation and Legitimacy in the European Union.” Oxford: Oxford University Press and Richard Katz and Bernhard Wessels, eds. (1999). “The European Parliament, the National Parliaments and European Integration.” Oxford: Oxford University Press..

Principal Investigators

• Pilar del Cstillo (CIS, Madrid)
• Cees van derEijk (University of Amsterdam)
• Mark Franklin (University of Houston)
• Richard Katz (Johns Hopkins University)
• Renato Mannheimer (University of Milan)
• Michael Marsh (Trinity College Dublin)
• Pippa Norris (Harvard University)
• Erik Oppenhuis (University of Amsterdam)
• Hermann Schmitt (University of Mannheim)
• Jacques Thomassen (University of Twente)
• Bernard Wessels (Free University of Berlin)
• Colette Ysmal (CEVIPOF, Paris)

Voter Study 1994

Euromanifesto Study 1979-2004

Elite Study 1994